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The production process of dark tea

By: Biens Jul. 23,2021
 Dark  tea production process
 
  I. Maocha processing
 
  1、Raw material
 
  The raw material requirements of fresh leaves are determined according to the class level of dark  tea produced.
 
  First grade dark  tea: one bud and three leaves at the beginning of development.
 
  Second grade dark  tea: one bud and three leaves, one bud and four leaves at the beginning of development.
 
  Third grade dark  hair tea: one bud five or six leaves. (Resident buds, mature new shoots)
 
  Fourth grade darck hair tea: mature branch tips mainly. (Red stems, lignified branches)
Black tea production process
  2、Killing
 
  Killing is the use of high temperature to destroy the enzyme activity in order to inhibit the enzymatic oxidation of polyphenolic substances. As the raw material is older and the moisture content is lower, it is not easy to kill evenly and thoroughly, so water should be sprinkled (commonly known as "pulp" or "grouting") before killing, generally 0.5 kg of water is added for every 5 kg of fresh leaves, and water can not be sprinkled for dewy leaves, rain leaves and more tender raw materials. When frying, high temperature steam is generated, which is conducive to killing evenly and thoroughly. The method of greening is divided into manual greening and mechanical greening.
Black tea production process
  3、Raw kneading
 
  dark  tea kneading is divided into primary kneading and re-kneading.
 
  The initial kneading is to knead the tea while it is hot after killing, so that most of the coarse tea leaves are initially kneaded into strips, and the tea juice overflows on the surface of the tea leaves, and the cell breakage rate reaches more than 20%, so as to create conditions for the physical and chemical changes of the pile. Because of the coarse and old quality of black tea leaves, both the initial kneading and re-kneading must follow the principle of light pressure, slow kneading and short time, otherwise the leaf flesh will be separated from the leaf veins, forming "loofah flesh", and the epidermis of the stems will be peeled off to form "peeling stems".
Black tea production process
  4、Wood stacking
 
  After the first kneading, the tea leaves are directly stacked without unblocking.
 
  The pile should be stacked on the back window, clean ground, avoiding direct sunlight, 66-100 cm high, covered with wet cloth and other things, so as to moisturize and keep warm. The suitable environmental conditions for the pile is the room temperature of about 25 ℃, the relative humidity is maintained at 85% or more. The general requirement for tea billet water content of about 65%, if the twisted leaves are too dry, you can sprinkle some water on the surface of the pile. If the temperature is high, the leaf temperature rises too fast, can be turned over once in the process of stacking to prevent burning tea billets. When the leaf color has become yellowish brown, the green gas is eliminated, the sweet wine lees aroma is issued, the hand reaches into the pile and feels hot, water droplets appear on the surface of the tea pile, the leaf viscosity is not too big, the light perspective is bamboo green and transparent that is the pile is moderate.
Black tea production process
  5、Re-kneading
 
  Because the tea strips after the pile are loosened, it needs to be kneaded again to make the tea strips rolled tightly, further decorate the fractal shape and break the cells, so that the breakage rate reaches more than 30%, thus enhancing the inner quality and improving the shape.
Black tea production process
  6、Drying
 
  After the tea billets are stacked, they are unblocked and re-kneaded and dried in time.
 
  The traditional drying method of black tea is different from other teas, which adopts the method of pine wood open fire, layered accumulation of wet billets and long time drying at one time. Traditional baking using a special "seven-star stove", that is, the import of the stove with seven brick holes, baking with pine firewood open fire, but the open fire does not enter the stove hole, not avoid the smell of smoke, baking tea pits are divided into large, medium and small, large pits can be baked once more than 200 kg of tea, about 100 kg in the pit, small pits 50 kg. When baking tea in seven times to add wet billet, to be the upper layer of 80% dry when turning roast, up and down interchangeable, drying under roast. The color of the tea is black and oily, and it has a unique fragrance of pine smoke.
Black tea production process
  Second, product processing
 
  1、Por brick tea
 
  (1) Hair tea sieving
 
  Hair tea sieving can be divided into three stages: hair tea blending, raw material sieving and net tea blending. "Special Fu" all use three levels of black tea as raw materials, but the ingredients must take into account spring, summer tea and regional quality differences, reasonable blending to ensure the stability of quality. "Pu Fu" raw materials to four black hair tea, mainly, spell into part of the three black hair tea, but also useful to reformulate the black hair tea as raw materials for the production of "Pu Fu".
 
  Before sieving, a sample of black tea should be reviewed, the selection of raw materials, to determine the formula, and then the selected black tea after sieving, cutting to obtain the sieve number that is the net tea, and put together into a pile.
Black tea production process
  (2) Pressing
 
  Steaming: make the tea billet absorb high temperature steam, increase humidity, raise temperature and create moist heat conditions for the next step of stacking. At the same time, the high temperature can remove the harmful mold and bacteria generated by the black tea due to long storage.
 
  Stacking: Under the action of moist heat, the tea billet further undergoes various complex chemical changes on the basis of the initial production of black tea to make up for the shortage of wet billet stacking, eliminate the green miscellaneous and coarse astringent taste, and create suitable conditions for the reproduction of beneficial microorganisms.
 
  Tea weighing and steaming: the specific processing procedures are: tea weighing and mixing with tea juice - tea steaming - cassette loading - pressing - cooling and shaping and brick retreat - inspection and packaging.
Black tea production process
  (3) Flowering and drying
 
  The "flowering" is a special process of Por brick tea processing, through the flowering in the brick to form a "golden flower", that is, the crown of the scattered cysts bacteria. The mastery of temperature and humidity is the key technology of Por brick flowering, only in moderate temperature and humidity conditions
 
  Only under moderate temperature and humidity conditions to promote the growth and reproduction of the coronary scattered cystic bacteria (i.e. golden flowers).
 
  The specific operation is: into the drying - temperature and humidity - check the flowering, timely drying - out of the drying and packaging.
Black tea production process
  2、Black brick tea
 
  (1) Sieving
 
  Equipment mainly has bamboo sieve, and divided into lift sieve, head sieve, one, two, three, four sieve, in, fine rain, bud rain, iron sieve, raw end sieve, into the end of the sieve and so on fourteen kinds, all made of bamboo gabions, and other cut-off knife, picking plate, picking plate, baking plate, roaster, bundle plate, windmill, etc..
 
  The sieving process is.
 
  Sieve tea: tea leaves are different because of the thickness of the old and young, through multiple sieve tea leaves shape neat and uniform, while picking out the mud and sand debris.
 
  Cut off tea: in addition to the word pile of tea leaves, the rest of the pile are cut off with a cut-off knife according to a certain length.
 
  Picking tea: picking off the very thick tea stems, yellow pieces.
 
  Bundle of tea: the thick tea should be bundled and stepped on, firstly by steaming softly in a cloth bag, and then on the bundle board at 45 degrees, two people step on it from top to bottom, repeatedly for more than seven times, so that it is tightened into strips.
Black tea production process
  Fanning tea: passing through the windmill to separate light and heavy, and picking out the ash and debris.
 
  Piling: according to the fineness, length and color, according to the four types of piles (heaven, earth, human, and four types of piles) are piled into sprinkling surface and bag heart, and then put into the machine for steaming and pressing.
 
  (2) Pressing
 
  Steaming tea: before 1940 with gauze wrapped tea, placed in the drawer steam. 1941 to use the steamer, quick and easy, steam time shortened.
 
  Pressing brick: the use of human spiral hand-cranked press, 4 people per part, 1 person specializing in transporting tea, 1 person loading box, 1 person Division spiral lift, 1 person raking flat tea and set of rip code, and then 4 people will insert the wooden stick into the cloud plate hole, try their best to rotate to the left, pressing the tea.
 
  Retreat brick: pressed brick tea, after 8 hours of cooling, sent to solve the tea box, exit the tea brick.
 
  (3) Drying
 
  Adopt drying room to dry, the temperature rises gradually, dry until the moisture reaches 11% can be dried and packed.
Black tea production process
  3、Flower brick tea
 
  The pressing process of flower brick tea and black brick tea is exactly the same, only the raw material quality of flower brick is slightly better than black brick, and the embossed pattern on the brick surface is different. Flower brick tea all use three levels of black hair tea as raw materials, while black brick tea is mainly three levels of black hair tea, put into part of the fourth level of black hair tea.
 
  Thousand two tea to Anhua top quality black tea as raw materials, through the sieving, picking, wind selection, shaping, blending and other processes processed, and special requirements: First, it must be authentic authentic Anhua tea; Second, the raw materials must be no stems and no miscellaneous, in order to make a thousand two tea; Third, the tea in the long tube lattice basket must be fresh Nan bamboo woven, a Nan bamboo can only weave a. Each tea processing can be divided into two stages: steaming package filling basket, rod pressing tight shape.
 
  A stage of steaming package filling basket: five hanging, five steaming, five filling, laying polygon leaf, tire brown leaf, on ''cattle cage mouth" and other steps. That is, the raw materials are weighed in turn, respectively, wrapped in cloth and lifted into the steam barrel with high temperature steam softening, in turn into the basket (lined with polygonum leaves, palm silk piece each layer), layer by layer by hand to step on the compact, and finally on the "cattle cage mouth" to lock the mouth.
 
  The second stage of the bar pressed into shape: the tea-filled gabion basket placed under the special lever of the pressing site by five rounds of rolling, tightening the gabion basket, with the foot on the basket rolling, manipulating the small bar stranded basket gabion, with the basket of tea pressed tight, gabion basket constantly shrinking, pressed large bar and stranded small alternately repeated 5 times, plus hoop stranded to the flower roll circumference size to meet the requirements, there are 7 hoops, and finally hammering flower roll shaping (commonly known as playing hammer). After these tedious processes, it is placed aside to cool and set.
Black tea production process
  After shaping, the hoop should be loosened, kill the gabion, lock the mouth, mark the manufacturing date, place the anti-counterfeit mark, and finally put in a special drying shed to dry vertically, sunshine and night exposure for 1 month, that is, the finished product. The essence of this process is to ferment and dry under natural conditions catalyzed by itself.
 
  4、Tri-tip tea
 
  The three tips of tea are divided into the tip of the sky, tribute tip, raw tip. Sky, tribute, raw tip.
 
  The processing process is: raw material sieving, wind selection, picking, high temperature gas steaming softening, kneading, roasting, stacking, packaging, etc. Sky tip is made of first grade black hair tea as the main raw material, and a small amount of second grade elevated black hair tea is blended into it. Tribute tip is mainly second grade black hair tea, with a small amount of first grade declining and third grade elevated black hair tea raw materials. The black hair tea used for raw tip is coarser and older, mostly in the form of flakes and contains more stems.
 
  Dark  tea belongs to one of the six major tea categories, is a post-fermented tea, the production process is exquisite, and the finished tea is of good quality. In addition, black tea is also a tea with high nutritional value and is a healthy health tea drink.
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